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  • This area of research is relatively new, and as of this writing, the only tools available for gathering and detecting bus fingerprints are the ones released by Open Garages.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileEvery car has a VIN that can be decoded to give you the information you need, and you need no prior knowledge of the platform's CAN packets in order to make a VIN query.
    Free download adobe flash player exe fileBy monitoring network traffic and knowing which operating systems set which values in the packet header by default, it's possible to determine which operating system the packet originated from without transmitting on the network.
    You also learned safe ways to ensure that your payloads wouldn't accidentally be run on unexpected vehicles with the help of VIN decoding and passive CAN bus identification techniques.
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    You don't want to flood a bus with a bogus signal, as this will shut the network down, and flooding the wrong signal on the wrong vehicle can have unknown affects.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileYour payload would still work on other vehicles made in North America or Japan if that radio unit is installed in some other vehicle that you're unaware of.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileSome TPMS systems use Bluetooth, which has its pros and cons from the perspective of an attacker: Bluetooth has a greater default range, but the Bluetooth protocol can also enable secure communication, making it harder to intercept or connect to.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileWe'll consider possible hacks, including ways that the TPMS could be used to track a vehicle, trigger events, overload the ECU, or spoof the ECU to cause unusual behavior.
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    Passive CAN bus fingerprinting is less detectable, so if you discover that the model vehicle you're targeting isn't supported by your exploit, you can exit gracefully without having created any network traffic, thus limiting your chances of being detected.
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    When passive IPv4 fingerprinting, details in the packet header, such as the window size and TTL values, can be used to identify the operating system that created the packet.
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    CAN ID you want to modify and, when you receive it through your read request, to modify only the byte(s) you want to alter and immediately send it back out.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileWe'll look at the technology that unlocks and starts your vehicle as we explore both the wireless side of keyless entry systems and the encryption they use.
    Free download adobe flash player exe fileThe TPMS device sits inside the wheel and transmits wirelessly into the wheel well, allowing its signals to be partially shielded by the body of the vehicle in order to prevent too much leakage.
    Free download adobe flash player exe fileYou can use GNU Radio to filter out desired signals, identify the type of modulation being used (see the next section), and apply the right demodulator to identify the bitstream.
    Each CAN packet has a DLC field to define the length of the data, though some manufacturers will set this to 8 by default and pad out the data to always ensure that 8 bytes are used.
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    In the fall of 2000, the United States enacted the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act, requiring that all new vehicles have a TPMS system installed in order to improve road safety by alerting drivers to underinflated tires.
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    If your only goal is to fingerprint a target for tracking or triggering an event, the SensorID is probably the only part of the packet you'll care about.
    However, this method does require you to transmit the query on the CAN bus, which means it's detectable and you may be discovered before you can trigger your payload.
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    After using these tools to capture and decode TPMS packets, you can analyze the captured data to determine which bits represent the system's unique ID as well as any other fields.
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    Free download adobe flash player exe fileSuch systems are usually good stepping stones for learning before looking at more advanced systems, such as those with keyless entry, which we'll look at hacking in the latter part of the chapter.
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